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John Child talks with the producers Oscar Hernández and Aaron Luis Levinson

The Making of Across 110th Street
by the Spanish Harlem Orchestra

John Child talks with the producers Oscar Hernández and Aaron Luis Levinson about Across 110th Street, the Spanish Harlem Orchestra's much-anticipated follow-up to their Grammy nominated debut CD Un Gran Dia En El Barrio. This time round, the production features multi-talented superstar Rubén Blades guesting on four tracks

JIC (John Ian Child): In my view, Across 110th Street (2004 on Libertad Records) surpasses the Spanish Harlem Orchestra's debut CD Un Gran Dia En El Barrio (2002 on Ryko / Ropeadope Records).

OH (Oscar Hernández): I, too, feel this is a better CD than our first one. I hope that this translates to the masses so we can continue our work in a fashion worthy of the calibre of music.

ALL (Aaron Luis Levinson): I agree that it goes beyond the first record, I think, on every level. The significant factor is that on the second album the band has now gigged together around the world for two years and been nominated for a Grammy! The playing in particular exhibits a tightness and ease not as evident the first time out. The degree to which this intense roadwork has changed the precision and swing of the band is astounding. The "mazacote" in this iteration of the ensemble is not to be believed. As far as dancers go, this stuff is a controlled substance. From the anorak's viewpoint this features blistering moñas from El Monero Mayor, Jimmy Bosch, as well the usual mind-bending playing from Chino Nuñez, Bobby Allende, George Delgado, Oscar and the rest of the guys.

JIC: One noticeable thing about the band's second outing is the change in personnel, particularly the new frontline singers Willie Torres and Marco Bermudez with only Ray de la Paz remaining. Frankie Vázquez leaving the fold was a bit of a shock in the Child household. We saw Willie Torres for the first time in September 2003 when the Spanish Harlem Orchestra performed in the UK. Marco Bermudez is familiar to us via his recorded work with Isidro Infante's Elite and Los Jovenes del Barrio. I remember Frankie saying in his interview that Martin Arroyo was initially considering Marco as the lead singer for Los Soneros del Barrio. So being recruited to the Spanish Harlem Orchestra is an ironic twist.

ALL: Here's the real kicker: I was let's say, concerned, that with the exit of both Hermán Olivera and Frankie Vázquez from the original vocal unit that we would have a hard time equaling that level of sonero firepower on the next outing. Well, I was needlessly fretful as the work done by our new trio de cantantes is simply smashing. The introduction of two new singers to the salsa field, Willie Torres and Marco Bermudez, is also a coup as it demonstrates clearly that salsa music is not just another Frankie Negrón clone of Marc Anthony. To be reunited with my old partner in crime Jimmy Bosch was a special thrill. I feel the album Soneando Trombón (1998 on RykoLatino) we did together was to some extent the start of a return to a "Nuevo Típico" style in salsa, especially in New York City. This album is to some degree the logical evolution from that humble beginning. Anyway, with the participation of Rubén Blades as our featured guest, I feel safe in saying that not only did we evade the dreaded sophomore slump, but we actually beat the pants off the first outing in many respects.

JIC: Whilst not radically changed, the band has a discernibly "different" sound on the new album, especially the coro. I would be interested in your response to this observation?

OH: This is just a byproduct of Willie, Marco and Ray doing the coros as opposed to the first album where it was Ray, Frankie and Hermán - so it's bound to sound different. (Both good though!) Also certain decisions are made on the spot so they sound unique to the moment. For example, who sings what voice.

JIC: Undoubtedly, Soneando Trombón was a milestone in the "Nuevo Tipico" movement. Oscar, would you like to add anything about the lineup changes on Across 110th Street?

OH: Well, when new singers bring their sound and style to the game, it's going to sound somewhat different. I do not want to be reliant on the sound of a particular singer. I want the Spanish Harlem Orchestra to have a sound no matter who sings.

JIC: I hear what you're saying Oscar. In other words, you're reasserting the traditional model of a fixed and decisive leadership instituting a band with a trademark sound and changeable personnel, like the Machito and Tito Puente organisations in their heyday, and Sonora Ponceña and El Gran Combo surviving in present day Puerto Rico. Please tell me about the significance of the title Across 110th Street?

ALL: Well it references both a famous '60s gangster film set in Harlem and also refers to being in the heart of Spanish Harlem itself. If you go to the neighbourhood you will find that below the real 110th Street sign, is says Tito Puente Blvd. To this day no neighbourhood on earth is more steeped in salsa history than the blocks around 110th Street on the east side of Harlem.

JIC: Let's start talking about the making of the album. The album opens with a Gil López arrangement of the Tito Puente composition "Cuando Te Vea" (originally from Puente's Dance Mania '58 on RCA and notably reinterpreted by Bobby Valentín for his album Rey Del Bajo '74 on Fania). Actually Gil's chart reminded me of the work he was doing for Ray Barreto's band from the mid-'70s to early '80s.

OH: That's a sound that I loved very much and Gil López was an important person in making it happen. It is a sound I wanted to be part of our sound.

ALL: Ray de la Paz's version of "Cuando Te Vea" is like platinum, chic but shiny in the right way! He is able to give any singer in salsa music a run for their money, Rubén included!

JIC: I was recently re-listening to Gil López' work on Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis's Afro-Jaws (1961 on Riverside), for which he wrote four tunes and all the arrangements. Please tell me more about the importance of Gil's contribution to the history of Latin music in New York?

ALL: Starting with his work as a pianist with Puente, Gil was at the epicenter of the explosion of this music in New York City. He was there for much of the Palladium years and, as a participant in that remarkable age, he is one of the last living architects of that era. Now that the Big Three are gone, as is the Queen, we are in an age when we need to gain all the wisdom we can from these majestic artists. Gil is a musical jewel and if there were any justice in the world, guys like him would be receiving MacArthur awards and NEA grants. But alas, this country has not grown up enough yet to fully give Latino artists the recognition they deserve, and it remains a sore point with me on a personal level, being the son of two artists myself!

OH: He has a style that's uniquely his own, and it represents a direct link to the great music that preceded me in this business. I could also do a great arrangement of those songs but it wouldn't be the same. It would not sound like Gil's. That's what I love about using different arrangers. They all bring their own distinctive voice and style.

JIC: Gil's other chart is of the bolero "Esperame En El Cielo," which Aaron described to me elsewhere as "heart-breakingly beautiful." Was the Celia Cruz version (available on Celia Cruz: Boleros on Seeco) the inspiration to include the song? Please tell me more?

OH: This was my idea! I loved the song and thought it would be a good idea to feature the three singers as in the old trio style, except with the twist of having an orchestra accompany them.

JIC: I'd like to talk now about Rubén's contribution. Oscar, how did Rubén come to be involved in the follow-up project?

OH: We accompanied Rubén for an event here in New York, and he was aware of the success we were having. I mentioned to Juan Toro (his manager) that we were looking for a guest artist for the new CD and he said that he thought Rubén might be interested. We proposed it to him and worked out the details, and here we are!

JIC: Aaron, I understand Rubén was originally slated to perform only three numbers, and he recorded the vocals for these in one session in February 2004.

ALL: I'm sure it was old hat for Oscar, but for me it was one of the greatest moments of my entire life. He was such a gentleman and a consummate professional at every level. Rubén graced our album with some of the hippest singing I have ever witnessed. "Force of nature" may be an over-used phrase but its accuracy in this case is uncanny. He recorded all three songs, "Un Gran Dia En El Barrio," "Bailadores" and "Como Lo Canto Yo," in three hours - top to bottom. He was variously, serious, hilarious, profound and profane, often within the same soneando. His dedication and relentless drive was obvious and demonstrated why he is the Latin Renaissance man. Whatever else I've witnessed as a producer was easily matched by hearing Rubén sing those three songs, it was jaw-dropping.

JIC: Let's look at each of Rubén's tunes in turn. "Un Gran Dia En El Barrio," the title of the first album, is an original number. Though oddly the composer Ray de la Paz does not sing it. What's the story here? I'd like to address the question to Oscar, who arranged the track.

OH: I thought it might be a great song for Rubén to sing and I asked Ray if he would mine if Rubén sang it. Obviously he didn't mind, and Ray also got a kick out of Rubén singing his song.

JIC: Aaron, after the instrumental recording phase of Across 110th Street was wrapped up in late January 2004; you predicted that "Cuando Te Vea" and Ray de la Paz's composition "Un Gran Dia En El Barrio" would be smashes on the dance floor. Do you still hold this view?

ALL: I sure do. I think that "Bailadores" may also fill that niche as well. I test drove that track at a Cuban club I deejay at on occasion and the place went bananas! So if that is any indicator, it should work everywhere!


JIC: The second from Rubén's initial session is a great version of the title track of the Joe Cuba Sextet's 1965 album Bailadores on Tico. This is also the second Héctor Rivera composition to be interpreted by the Spanish Harlem Orchestra. Please fill me in on the background to this selection?

ALL: Well Oscar can tell you more specifically, but as I understood it, when Oscar dealt with Rubén, Oscar and I both wanted him to give us some genuine input as to some songs he had always loved and never recorded, and apparently this song was a long standing favourite. The original version stands up amazingly well today. If you play that record you cannot help but be impressed by the clarity of the recording, the outrageous percussion work throughout and the fact that Cheo was simply a tsunami of sabor, or tsabor I suppose you might say! I am pretty sure I know why, but I am thrilled that the Joe Cuba Sextet is enjoying a renaissance amongst many hip non-Latin deejays around the world. I am not talking about salsa deejays, I am talking about soul / jazz / funk / hip-hop deejays who are starting to study this stuff and incorporate it into their sets as an extension of their concept of "groove music." The soneo paying homage to Nestor Sánchez in "Bailadores" is to me a particularly poignant moment amidst a torrent of ideas and commentary. According to virtually everyone who has heard a snatch of Rubén's work on this album, he is at the zenith of his career as a singer right now! I compare this with Sinatra circa the Capitol years.

OH: I thought this would be a good song for Rubén since he was always such a Joe Cuba Sextet fan and a big fan of Cheo. So I knew this would be a good choice. Plus the bottom line, as always, it's a swinging song. Period!

JIC: An irony I would like you to comment on is, bearing in mind the intense criticism Rubén used to receive in the early days for sounding like Cheo Feliciano; here we have the mature Mr Blades taking on a notable Cheo number.

(ANORAKS ALERT: In fact, Rubén covered another Joe Cuba Sextet recording featuring Cheo on lead vocals. The tune was "A Las Seis," originally from Joe Cuba's Steppin' Out '62 on Seeco, which Rubén recorded with Los Salvajes del Ritmo in Panama in 1968 [reissued in Rubén Blades Con Salvajes del Ritmo '96 on Lucuso])

OH: It's obvious Rubén has some Cheo influence, but he still has his own unique voice and style. Knowing Rubén, I am sure anyone saying that he sounds like Cheo doesn't bother him. On the contrary, he'll think it's a good thing.

ALL: If I can chime in. I'd like to say that it all seems like a long time ago and that things have changed so radically from the mid-'70s when that observation was being made. Today, with so many other giants gone, the obvious influence exerted by Cheo on a formative Rubén Blades seems both profound and honorable set in the context of our age. All I can say is that Rubén was using a towering figure as his model of inspiration. "If we have seen so far it is only because we stood on the shoulders of giants." (I'm sure I've butchered that beautiful quote but I pray the point survives my mangling of it.)

JIC: The third, and arguably the strongest and most powerful number from Rubén's February session is the Tite Curet Alonso composition "Como Lo Canto Yo", arranged by Oscar. Presumably the source of the tune is Justo Betancourt's 1975 Fania album Lo Sabemos, when Papo Lucca did the arranging honours. Please give me the lowdown on this track?

OH: This is a case of another swinging song from back in time sung by one of the great soneros of that era, Justo Betancourt. Being the great singer that he is, I knew Rubén would be up to the challenge of making it his own.

JIC: What's the story behind the subsequent recording of the bonus track "Tu Te Lo Pee Pee" written and sung by Rubén, which I understand was making waves on the underground scene in Puerto Rico before the release of the album?

ALL: Many months before in fact. The actual title " Tu Te Lo Pierdes" means "It's Your Loss" in Spanish. Rubén made a recording in a basement studio that he took to a major salsa station on the island and asked the PD to play it just to see what the response might be. It was phenomenal and as it was never commercially released there are now thousands of people on the island who have cassette copies taped off the radio of this demo version of the song. When we first heard it in the studio, frankly, people laughed so hard that tears came to their eyes. At first, we were unsure as to whether it "went" with the rest of the album. We decided that if a sense of humour now seemed "out of place," we were probably taking ourselves way too seriously. In the end we put it on as a bonus track, because we did do it as "lagniappe" as they say in New Orleans, something extra, just because we could!

OH: This is a song I did not want on the CD. I thought conceptually it did not fit. However, Aaron and John Robertson persuaded me that with a Spanish Harlem Orchestra style arrangement it could be made to work as a bonus track, and that's the case here.

JIC: As an aside, "lagniappe" is the Trinidadian patois expression for "a little extra thrown in." Talking of Trinidad, the land of calypso, the lyrical content of "Tu Te Lo Pee Pee" is very cheeky, akin to a smutty calypso. Sensing that part of the answer may lie in my question: What was the intention of including such a naughty and potentially controversial song?

ALL: Well, we like the idea of hit records over here at Libertad. (Laughter) We like them a whole lot. Rubén has had a pretty phenomenal run as a songwriter, think "El Cantante" by Héctor Lavoe or "Numero 6" by Bobby Rodríguez, and you get the idea of what a genius this guy is as a songwriter. He felt in his bones that with this recording we had a chance for a major league hit record on commercial radio both here and in Puerto Rico. At the end of the day though, the most important thing is this, it is a great song. Period. This is a NEW salsa composition by Rubén Blades. Hello?!? Frankly, it has become one of my personal favorites on the record.

JIC: Musically, "Tu Te Lo Pee Pee" has a different feel to the remainder of the album. I understand that its arranger, Angel Fernández, is chuffed that this is the first time Rubén has recorded a number arranged by a trumpeter since he went solo. I would be interested in Oscar's comments?

OH: I gave Angel the guidelines for arranging this song to make it somewhat fit our concept. So, although a bit different, it works. If it translates into greater commerciality, that would be nice.

JIC: Let's turn to the two tunes performed by Marco Bermudez. First-up is "Tun Tun Suena El Tambo" composed by the young sonero Ray Viera and arranged by Angel Fernández. A highlight on "Tun Tun Suena El Tambo" is one of Jimmy's exhilarating trombón criollo moments. Aaron, what's the background on this cut?

OH: This also was my choice. I asked Ray Viera to submit a couple of songs and I thought this would be a good choice for us.

ALL: I am a big fan of Ray Viera, the current cantante with maestro Johnny Pacheco along with his old pal Héctor Casanova. Ray is an amazing guy. He is a wicked singer, not a jazz influenced singer like Ray de la Paz, but a more "mountain" type of guy. As a sonero, as distinct from his vocal qualities, he is a master improviser. His flow of ideas, his timing, his phrasing, this guy has got it all. So, not only is he a great vocalist, he is also a very hip songwriter. The lyrics to the song show you that he has a vital imagination and an excellent grasp of language. So, anyway, we were casting about for songs and in the process we found this one from Ray Viera and it is a winner. By the way, it was Ray Viera who came up with the name Libertad for our label, and he was the one who suggested Marco as a possible candidate for inclusion on Across 110th Street.

(NOTE: Ray Viera made his solo debut with Aqui Esta '02 on AP Productions.)

JIC: Marco's next track is the Charlie Palmieri classic "La Hija De Lola" written by the former heartthrob Raúl Marrero, originally from Charlie's 1972 album El Gigante Del Teclado on Alegre. I remember Aaron telling me in September 2003 that he was insisting on the inclusion of this number. So what was your thinking behind this decision and the choice of Marty Sheller as the arranger?

OH: This was Aaron's idea to do this song. I thought Marty Sheller would be the perfect arranger to make this totally different from the original (which I did not like), and he did not disappoint. A great job on Marty's part.

ALL: First of all, Marty Sheller is another American treasure. Few guys have his insight as an orchestrator. First, as a trumpet player himself, he understands the mechanics of the instrument. So, his brass writing comes from experience as an instrumentalist. When a guy who plays writes, he knows the "sweet spots." Consequently they often make the most musically satisfying charts. Inevitably, as he was the musical director for Mongo Santamaría for decades, Marty was exposed to the clave and was writing for a band led by a percussionist. Naturally, as everyone knows, whether it was "Watermelon Man" or "Sofrito", Mongo was very into funk, soul, and jazz as well as Latin music. So, naturally, Marty had to become proficient in integrating these other rhythmic and harmonic dialects into his lexicon as an arranger. Finally, Marty adores jazz. I know this for a fact 'cause I had a picnic in his backyard and we had an extensive chat about this very issue a number of years ago.

JIC: Moving next to the two selections sung by the youngest guy in the band, Willie Torres. What's the background to "Dime Si Llegue a Tiempo," arranged by Sonny Bravo, which I note was a track on Celia Cruz and Johnny Pacheco's second collaboration Tremendo Caché (1975 on Vaya)?

OH: Bobby Allende recommended this song to me, and as soon as I heard it, I knew it would be a good song for us to do. Willie did an excellent job.

JIC: Being recruited to the Spanish Harlem Orchestra is a tremendous break for Willie. His second number is "Maestro De Rumberos," which the band was already performing when they made their UK debut in April 2003. I remember Ray de la Paz telling me that Frankie Vázquez introduced the song to the band's repertoire from Ismael Quintana's 1976 album Lo Que Estoy Viviendo '76 on Vaya, where Papo Lucca arranged it. Oscar, as the arranger of the track, I would be interested in your comments?

OH: Frankie and I both came up with this song and, again, a prerequisite for me is that it has to have been a swinging track for me to even consider it, and, again, that was the case. Willie does a good job here. For someone so young, he understands the idiom and the singer's responsibility.

JIC: Returning to Ray de la Paz, he told me back in April 2003 that Chino Nuñez was arranging the old Impacto Crea tune "Te Cantare" (originally from Impacto Crea '78 on Vaya) for him, and there it is, the seventh track on Across 110th Street. Is there anything you would like to share about this track?

ALL: Ray de la Paz is not to be believed. His singing is effortless. Singing to Ray is like drinking a glass of water to us mere mortals. For a while after the sessions, I could not get the song out of my mind come hell or high water. I saw Ray with his band about seven or eight years ago in New York at the now defunct Les Poulets. He blew me away. I knew him from Barretto but at the time I was unaware of what he had done with Louie Ramírez. I am shamefully unaware of much that occurs in the present day or the recent past, as John Child can attest. My expertise, if one could call it that, lies in the dustier corners of music history apparently. Anyway, I think this song might be one of his serious high points as a singer. He said to me backstage a little while ago: "I think I can hold my own with anyone out there, at least I can give you a run for your money." That is the understatement of the year. If you're an ordinary salsa singer and you hear Ray de la Paz is singing first, I would strongly advise to you to consider hiding under the sink for the night and pray that no one finds you.

JIC: Two more tracks to talk about. In the tradition of the previous album Un Gran Dia En El Barrio, you have included a cha cha chá, "Escucha El Ritmo," and an instrumental "Perla Morena." Oscar, you wrote and arranged both, please tell me more?

OH: I wanted to keep the thread of doing a cha cha on our follow-up CD. It is a rhythm that has gotten a bit lost within the salsa scene. Because the cha cha chá craze was an early crossover success in the history of Latin dance, it is important to highlight this important dance form and rhythm. "Perla Morena" is just an instrumental inspiration I had at home one afternoon, thinking about a way to feature some of the musicians in the band. It came out nice, I am very happy with it.

JIC: Do you have any ambitions to re-popularise the cha cha chá rhythm?

OH: That would be a nice by-product, but that's not my motivation. I just love cha cha and so do many lovers and fans of the music.

ALL: Oscar Hernández also contributed "Cha Cha Pa' Gozar" to Un Gran Dia, so I think he is definitely trying to tell us something! I love a good cha cha as much as the next guy, but I consider myself more of a guarachero / mambonik when all is said and done. The cha cha sounds very hip in the hands of Oscar however.

JIC: "Escucha El Ritmo" provides a nice opportunity for some solos. Am I right in detecting a rare recorded solo by trombonist Dan Reagan in "Perla Morena"?

OH: Yes, it features Dan Reagan, John Walsh, Pablo Nuñez, Bobby Allende and myself.

JIC: Aaron, consistent with your previously stated aesthetic preference, the band is recorded live as opposed to the prevailing technique of layer by layer. Is there anything you would like to add on this issue?

ALL: Only the superb job done by Dave Kowalski as our recording engineer at Bennett Studios. His experience as an engineering vet was invaluable. But to give you an idea of how unusual this way of working really has become, this was the first truly analogue recording session Dave had done in years! He had to re-learn some skills he has effectively retired in this digital age of ours. Also at the other end of the scale was the mixing done by Phil Nicolo over at Studio 4 in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. He does such an exceptional job of keeping the analogue philosophy alive. In fact Phil and I remain strongly committed to the analogue domain for recording music. As good as digital sounds today, and it sounds damn good, it does not give the music a "hug and a kiss" like analogue does under stringent conditions. When people hear it against a Pro-Tools type session, they go "wow, what did you do?" It's called analogue tape, baby, and when it's used at its highest level, it is still the Bentley of sound.

JIC: So you guys now have a follow-up, pulsating with Grammy potential, in the bag. What's on the band's agenda for the next 12 months?

OH: Just to keep working, traveling and playing music we absolutely love to play.

ALL: Working this record to its maximum potential around the world. From every angle, commercial to college, we intend to bring it to the greatest possible audience we can address. From salsa freaks to soccer moms, this album is fairly overflowing with hypnotically engaging music from start to finish. If the stars are with us, who knows what could happen? (Sigh)

JIC: The international success of the Spanish Harlem Orchestra has provided a vital and overdue opportunity for showcasing the very best of the New York Latin music tradition. How do you guys feel about shouldering this weighty responsibility?

OH: No responsibility at all. It is a relief to be able to work and showcase such a band and such excellent musicians.

ALL: I do as the founder and co-producer feel compelled to have this music and these great artists be seen and treated with dignity. From a technological standpoint, I am quite willing to go "contra la corriente" as I've done for many years, to achieve that elusive magic that all great records aspire toward. Digital multi-track and Pro-Tools editing make it very easy to make the sub-mediocre acceptable, but only transcendent performances can elevate the good into the realm of the legendary. I try to offer a creative atmosphere to make that magic dust happen every time we roll tape. And we do roll tape. I think Oscar was unconvinced to some degree about the difference between analogue and digital. Why go to all the bother, basically? And that is a good question. But in the end he said to Phil Nicolo and me that he was truly converted when he heard the final result. I am proud of that. It's not that he didn't know, it was just that he was so used to working digitally that he had forgotten what analogue was really capable of capturing.

JIC: Is it too early to ask what the vision is for a third and subsequent albums?

OH: Yes, too early…let's all enjoy this one.

ALL: I'd love to do a concert DVD at some point, but that is different from the third album.

JIC: Aaron, Across 110th Street is now the third release from your Libertad Records stable. Previous releases were the Grammy nominated Musica Universal (2003) by Truco & Zaperoko and the essential rare grooves compilation Lost Classics of Salsa Vol. 1 (2003). Are you able to share any news about future Libertad projects?

ALL: We have a superb album coming up in the fall from Zaperoko. It is called Zaperoko 3. It was recorded in 1989 just after the death of co-founder Frankie Rodríguez. It was released in that year in a quantity of about 500 pieces and was entitled Tarde En La Noche. The mix of the album was done under less than ideal circumstances and, consequently, it suffered as a result. When we got the album, I went in with my pal Phil Nicolo and we actually did some substantial renovations to the tracks that we got from Edwin Feliciano. Certain parts were mono and we made them stereo. We radically equalized some of the percussion parts to maximize their "thump" and filtered other things to improve clarity and intelligibility. We also got a song that was not on the original tiny pressing run of the album on vinyl. Anyway, I feel very strongly that Zaperoko and Batacumbele are among the finest and least recognised creative outfits in the history of Latin music. Libertad is committed to putting Zaperoko into their proper place in the canon. They are great people and great artists.

JIC: Oscar, knowing you've long been a man much in demand on the New York recording scene, do you have any extracurricular projects in the pipeline you can tell me about?

OH: I am currently working on the music for a feature documentary film.

JIC: Before we wrap up, is there anything either of you would like to add?

ALL: I'd like to thank Bruce Polin and all the good people at who have once again graciously offered us a forum to share our story in this extensive and comprehensive fashion. We at Libertad salute you. I'd like to thank both Oscar and all the guys in the band for being such talented artists and genuine ambassadors to the world on behalf of this music.

OH: I want to thank you and everyone who supports our music. It is through the support we receive that we are blessed to be able to do what we love to do!

JIC: Thanks very much for your time, gentlemen.

ALL: As always, John, the pleasure has been mine.

OH: Likewise, I hope we can get to the UK again sometime in the near future.

Many thanks to Dorancé Lorza for contributing his observations.

John Child is co-host of the the totallyradio show Viva Latina,
a regular contributor to the Latin music website and MusicWeb Encyclopedia of Popular Music, and Penguin and Guinness Encyclopedias of Popular Music

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